With different Delight—
Because—when next it burns abroad
They doubt to witness it—
The Man—to die—tomorrow—
Harks for the Meadow Bird—
Because its Music stirs the Axe
That clamors for his head—
Joyful—to whom the Sunrise
Joyful—for whom the Meadow Bird
Has ought but Elegy!
J294, Fr298 (1862) 294
After a couple of sunset poems we now have one on sunrise. It begins with a philosophical statement about how those who are about to live their last day experience sunrise—which is a traditional symbol of hope and new beginnings. These “Doomed” souls delight in sunset as do the “Joyful” of the second stanza, but theirs is a “different Delight.” It may be that “delight” is not the most appropriate word here: the doomed may have a new-found appreciation or even wonder, but it seems more likely they would experience great sadness or regret. But the point is clear enough: The doomed may well have a greater focus on the marvel and beauty that is the sun seemingly rising from behind the world to flood the sky with color and signal the end of night.
|Sunrise wasn't so cheery for the Earl of Somerset|
A doomed man also listens to morning birdsong in a new way. Birds and executioners get an early start. When the prisoner hears the bird he knows his time on earth is soon to end. In a rather savage touch, the lovely song of the “Meadow Bird” “stirs” the executioner’s axe into bloodlust. No longer an inert tool of justice, the axe “clamors” for the beheading. It wants to sever head from neck.
Both pairings are ironic: sunrise with doom and bird with executioner’s axe.
The last stanza seems to welcome death ecstatically. For those whom the bird “has ought but Elegy,” or nothing but a beautiful lament, sunrise is a joyful experience. Sunrise for these lucky souls ushers in the “Enamored” day. “Enamored” means “inflamed with love,” and so the day itself takes on a sense of joyful preparation akin to that of a wedding day. The soul prepares for the ultimate mystery, a journey to discover what lies beyond life’s shores. Dickinson has introduced this idea of journey in numerous poems so far. The poem promises life beyond death and celebrates the last sunrise.