And did God Care?
He cared as much as on the Air
A Bird — had stamped her foot —
And cried "Give Me" —
My Reason — Life —
I had not had — but for Yourself —
'Twere better Charity
To leave me in the Atom's Tomb —
Merry, and nought, and gay, and numb —
Than this smart Misery.
F581 (1863) J376
The speaker in this poem begins by addressing someone real or theoretical who perhaps asked her if she had prayed about something – no doubt something related to her "Misery". The speaker's response is emphatic and frustrated. "Of Course" she says. But to what effect? "Nothing. I might as well have been a bird stamping on air demanding things."
The fifth line is a transition from the speaker's complaining about God to another person to her complaining directly to God – or perhaps to a beloved. While the nature of her grievance is not entirely clear, it is easy to read the poem as saying that the speaker thinks she would be better off dead than living in "smart Misery". "You gave me life," she points out bitterly to God. "But it would have been 'better Charity' to have left me as undifferentiated matter."
That seems pretty harsh. A close reading, however, suggests the speaker is equating "Life" with animation: spiritual, emotional, or intellectual. The "Atom's Tomb" would be existence on the other end of the spectrum: mindless banality. Sure those atoms are merry and gay as they careen carelessly around. But their very lack of purpose and awareness means they are ultimately interred in entropic numbness and "nought". Thus, Dickinson's interleaved list of "Merry, and nought, and gay, and numb".
And it might also be an impossible or tormented love affair. The implied "You" might well be someone the speaker loves passionately. She might have prayed to God to help her cope or even help the affair develop. God does not intervene, and the speaker then chastises the beloved. "You awoke my dreams and my passion," she might be saying in this reading. "But you should have left me "gay, and numb".
The "Atom's Tomb" is an interesting image, for atoms cannot be confined in any but the most sealed environment. The atoms are their own tomb – lifeless unless animated in some way to coalesce into awareness and being. The slant and sight rhyme of the words add interest to the poem, too. The following line starts with "Merry" and this "m" sound draws out the "m" in the preceding "Tomb". The passage "Merry, and nought, and gay, and numb" trips more easily off the tongue than any other line in the poem, the new "n" words, "nought" and "numb" setting it off. The contrasting last line with its three adjacent accented syllables, "this smart Misery" ends the poem with a return to the "m"s, now spiked with the frustration that pervades this poem.